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传说的豪猪枣:百病的解药

豪猪枣的发现

枣 · 是动物胃脏里未消化类石化物体。豪猪顽强的免疫系统与自愈能力,与它们多吃奇异野生药草的天性息息相关。而 豪猪枣 既是这些奇异药草的超浓缩精华。

豪猪枣的英文名称 “bezoar”在10世纪取名自 波斯文 “pazar”既是仙丹的意思。最早期的历史记载,是阿拉伯的古代医药,随后在十字军时代广传到欧洲。{Duffin et al., 2013}

医药历史及谁曾使用豪猪枣?

Abu Mansur Muwaffak 将豪猪枣记载在医学古书materia medica (公元968 ~ 977年) 归类为宝石。Al-Biruni (公元973-1048年) 写说5种豪猪枣,其中来自印度和汉土,皆能够化解多种剧毒。直到16世纪,豪猪枣在欧洲、印度、汉土、与东南亚之间的贸易价值持续增长。{Rolt, 1967}

De Bondt (公元1620-1666年) 进行了临床试验,让怀孕及患月经问题的妇女们纯粹握着豪猪枣在手上,都经历了好转。这实验意味着豪猪枣能够释放奇妙的医治 “能量”或 “粒子” 渗透皮肤,展示豪猪枣为极度浓缩的药性精华。{Barbette, 1687}

De Bondt (公元1620-1666年) 也成功使用豪猪枣浸泡在清酒治好霍乱患者。{Searle, 1831}

许多急性恶病 (高烧、疳、天花病、麻疹、黄疸、胆衰) 患者在Frederick Dekkers (公元1648-1720年) 与 Albertus Seba (公元1665-1736年) 获得治疗。 {Seba, 1734}

Eberhard Rumpf  (公元1627-1702年) 也同样的发现许多急性与慢性疾病的好转现象 (其中有热病、胃痛、食物中毒、多屁、黄疸、肺积水、水痘,霍乱、线虫、脓肿、便血、心唈、癫痫、肾结石)。{Seba, 1734; Borschberg, 2006}

直到今日,豪猪枣的万能药性在科学的争议下依然占据重大的医学地位。{Duffin et al., 2013}

现代医学考研

豪猪枣能够抵抗癌细胞繁殖{Al’aina et al., 2017; Azizulkarim et al., 2018}、促使癌细胞凋亡 {Ahmed et al., 2019; Yew et al., 2019}、也身为抗氧化剂减轻癌病变的氧化应激 {Yew et al., 2018; Khan et al., 2019}。

豪猪枣也被公认性的使用为骨痛热症的替代疗方 {Wong and Abu Bakar, 2013}.



References

Abu Mansur Muwaffak ibn Ali al-Harawi (flourished in Herat, Afghanistan, during the reign of Samanid prince Mansur I ibn Nuh, who ruled from 961 to 976) - Book of the Remedies (Kitab al-abnyia ‘an Haqa’iq al-adwiya), a materia medica dealing with 585 remedies compiled between 968 and 977 AD and the first prose work to be written in modern Persian.

Al-Biruni, Muhammad ibn. English Translation of Al-Beruni’s Book on Mineralogy: Kitab Al-Jamahir Fi Marifat Al-Jawahir. Great Books Project. 66, Islamabad : Pakistan Hijra Council, 1989:  172.

Rolt R. A new dictionary of trade and commerce, compiled from the information of the most eminent merchants, and from the works of the best writers on commercial subjects, in all languages. Printed for G Keith, S Crowder and H Woodgate and S Brooks: London, 1761: unpaginated; James, Ref. 17: 513.

Duffin, C.J., 2013. Porcupine stones. Pharm Hist (Lond)43(1), pp.13-22.

Searle C. Cholera, its nature, cause and treatment; with original views physiological, pathological, and therapeutical, in relation to fever; the action of poisons on the system; &c. &c. To which is added, An essay on vital temperature and nervous energy; explanatory more particularly of the nature, source, and distribution of the latter; and of the connection between the mind and the body: &c. &c. London: John Wilson, 1830;  Anonymous. Bibliothèque Universelle des Sciences, Belles-lettres et Arts. 1831; 2: 286ff.

Barbette P. Thesaurus chirurgiae: the chirurgical and anatomical works of Paul Barbette, MD Practitioner in Amsterdam. Composed according to the doctrine of the circulation of the blood, and other new inventions of the moderns: together with a treatise of the plague, illustrated with observations/ translated out of Low-Dutch into English. The fourth edition; to which is added the surgeon’s chest, furnished both with instruments and medicines all useful; Illustrated with several copper plates; and to make it more compleat, is adjoyned a treatise of diseases that for the most part attend camps and fleets;  written in High-Dutch by Raymundus Minderius. 3 vol. Printed for Henry Rodes next door to the Swan Tavern, near Bride Lane, in Fleet Street: London, 1687: 361-361. 

Seba A. Locupletissimi rerum naturalium thesauri accurata descriptio, et iconibus artificiosissimis expressio, per universam physices historiam. Opus, cui, in hoc rerum genere, nullum par exstitit / Ex toto terrarum orbe collegit, digessit, descripsit, et depingendum curavit Albertus Seba. 4 volumes. Amstelaedami: apud Janssonio-Waesbergios, 1734-1765. 

Dekkers F. Exercitationes practicae circa medendi methodum, auctoritate, ratione, observationibusve plurimis confirmatae ac figuris illustratae. Lugduni Batavorum: Apud Cornelium Boutesteyn & J Luchtmans, 1694: 466; see also Seba, Reference 10: 83.

Barclay, Reference 17, unpaginated; Löseke JLL & Gmelin JF. Materia Medica. 5th edition. Berlin & Stettin, Friedrich Nicolai: Berlin & Stettin, 1785: 197

Manget  J-J. Bibliotheca Pharmaceutico-Medica, Seu Rerum adPharmaciam Galenico-Chymicam spectantium Thesaurus Refertissimus: In quo, Ordine Alphabetico non Omnis tantum Materia Medica Historice, Physice, Chymice ac Anatomice explicata; sed & Celebriores quaeque Compositiones, Tum Ex Omnibus Dispensatoriis Pharmaceuticis, variis hactenus Linguis in lucem editis, tum e melioris notae Scriptoribus Practicis excerptae. Chouet G de Tournes, Cramer, Perachon, Ritter, & S de Tournes: Coloniae Allobrogum, 1703: 136.

Borschberg P. The Trade, Forgery and Medicinal Use of Porcupine Bezoars in the Early Modern Period (c.15001750).Oriente 2006; 14: 60-78.

AL’AINA, Y.F.K., ASUHAIMI, F.A., JALAL, T., NATTO, H.A., ROHEEM, F.O., AHMED, Q.U., JOHAN, M.F., HASHIM, R. and WAHAB, R.A., 2017. Anti-Proliferative Property of Porcupine Bezoar Extract on Melanoma (A375). INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES1(2), pp.1-13.

Yew, P.N., Lee, W.L. and Lim, Y.Y., 2017. Antioxidant and intracellular reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species scavenging activities of three porcupine bezoars from Hystrix brachyura. Pharmacognosy research9(4), p.366.

Yew, P.N., Goh, B.H., Lim, Y.Y. and Lee, W.L., 2018. Gastrointestinal bezoar stones: current knowledge and future perspective on the potential of plant-derived phytobezoar in cancer treatment. In Anticancer Plants: Natural Products and Biotechnological Implements (pp. 19-39). Springer, Singapore.

Yew, P.N., Lim, Y.Y. and Lee, W.L., 2019. Tannic acid-rich porcupine bezoars induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human colon cancer cells. Pharmacognosy Magazine15(65), p.523.

AL’AINA, Y.F.K., ASUHAIMI, F.A., JALAL, T., NATTO, H.A., ROHEEM, F.O., AHMED, Q.U., JOHAN, M.F., HASHIM, R. and WAHAB, R.A., 2017. Anti-Proliferative Property of Porcupine Bezoar Extract on Melanoma (A375). INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES1(2), pp.1-13.

Azizulkarim, A.H., Jamil, M.M.A., Adon, M.N., Wahab, R.A., Ibrahim, T.N.T., Hamdan, S. and Baba, S., 2018, November. In-vitro evaluation of porcupine bezoar extracts (PBE) as anti-cancer agent on HeLa cell line–A preliminary study. In AIP Conference Proceedings (Vol. 2031, No. 1, p. 020024). AIP Publishing.

Ahmed, Q.U., Narayanamurthy, V., Razali, S., Asuhaimi, F.A., Saleh, M.S., Johan, M.F., Khatib, A., Seeni, A. and Wahab, R.A., 2019. Anticancer activity of grassy Hystrix brachyura bezoar and its mechanisms of action: An in vitro and in vivo based study. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy114, p.108841.

Khan, F., Abdullah Asuhaimi, F., Jalal, T.K., Roheem, F.O., Natto, H.A., Johan, M.F., Ahmed, Q.U. and Abdul Wahab, R., 2019. Hystrix Brachyura Bezoar Characterization, Antioxidant Activity Screening, and Anticancer Activity on Melanoma Cells (A375): A Preliminary Study. Antioxidants8(2), p.39.

Wong, L.P. and AbuBakar, S., 2013. Health beliefs and practices related to dengue fever: a focus group study. PLoS neglected tropical diseases7(7), p.e2310.



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